The secret lies in the fact that the Germans can outfire when only 30% of the enemy’s steel is produced
Germany is a charter member of the two world wars, the mystery of the rise of the German people is not the deutsche spirit and German descent, German soldiers are often in the franco-prussian war before the army head dozen bad review period (from Machiavelli has diminished after the Napoleonic wars), European military before but is not afraid of the German people, the secret of the rise of the German steel.This is not to say that Germany’s steel production in the enemy, in 1913 before the first world war Germany steel production is 17.6 million tons, and the Allies main five industrial countries (France, Britain, Russia, Italy and the United States, the United States declared war on Germany in 1917 April, almost involved in world war one half of the war) of the steel production is 49.83 million tons,Germany produced only 35% of the enemy’s steel.But Germany produced 76,500 artillery pieces, almost as many as the allied countries combined (77,900). With the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which was also a German nation, the Allies produced more than 94,400 artillery pieces. It was German steel that gave the German nation the power to challenge the whole world.Steel production and artillery production are not easily equated. The best example of this is the United States, which was the largest producer of steel before and after World War I, producing more than 90 million tons (the United States produced 31.8 million tons in 1913,The US produced 4600 pieces of steel, less than The Italians (6500). The reason for the low production of The Yanks is that they haven’t made steel yet, which is what the Germans were good at after 1860.Before 1860 artillery materials technology really wolong bodes (here is the original intention), Britain and France, krupp, the founder of Alfred krupp has spent more than five months from England and France to steal technology, it is their family tradition, because the krupp company with Britain’s iron and steel technologies is fake at the earliest.There were two turning points between Krupp and the German artillery industry. One was the invention of hollow forged steel by Alfred Krupp, which was first used in the barrel of a gun and later by Krupp in the barrel.One was the open-hearth steelmaking technology invented by Siemens (the company’s founder), which allowed it to produce high-quality steel on a larger scale, and which Krupp paid a fortune to buy.Before 1860, Prussia’s artillery was “made in all countries”. After 1860, Krupp, a steel and artillery company, helped Prussia win three wars and turned itself into a world famous arms giant.At the time of Alfred Krupp’s death, Krupp was neck and neck in the world artillery market with Schneider of France and Vex-cor of Britain, and Schneider’s four-pounder light gun was once krupp’s arch-rival.The key to German gun makers such as Krupp and Rheinmetall’s success is alloy steel, which is added with “spices” such as chromium, nickel and tungsten to increase hardness and elasticity.Adding nickel can increase corrosion resistance and yield strength.After adding tungsten, steel not only increases its strength, but also resists corrosion, heat and wear.Adding a variety of raw materials to steel can greatly improve the performance of steel. In the age of carbon steel, the Admiralty standard for British gun steel was 38 to 44 tons per square inch, while in the age of alloy steel, the tensile strength of nickel steel became 45 to 55 tons per square inch.Cannons made of alloy steel could withstand higher barrel temperatures, greater bore pressure, more charges, and a further increase in the caliber of the gun, leading to the age of steel artillery (the famous Urban cannon was made of bronze).In the late 1800s and early 1900s alloy technology was like lithography today, the secret of secrets.Germany was the best of the best. German artillery had entered the age of alloy steel before the first world War, and Rheinmetall was the first to produce tungsten guns, leaving the Allies behind.Therefore, although Germany was not dominant in steel production during World War I, it took the lead among the major military powers because of the advantage of alloy steel and other artillery materials.For this point, Germany’s sober politicians are all clear, iron chancellor Bismarck deliberately put “iron” before “blood”.